There has long been, in certain tribal cultures, debate over whether men and women were equal with one another. The same debate has gone on for eons about whether certain races were equal to one another.
So, this is 2013, nearly 2014 A.D. and these debates still have not been resolved. In fact the more science discovers, the more it appears that trying to categorize groups of humans as inferior or superior to one another is a moot point; there are too many variations, and too many similarities, at the same time.
Aside from scientific evidence, however, there is the question of logic and common sense.
If one is actually inferior to another, then challenging this would not be met with defense, anger, or attempts at punishment or oppression.
IF a natural inferior were to challenge a natural superior, they would be met with no hostility or offense of dignity, but with a knowing nod, a calm smile, and a kind hand. Perhaps a quiet chuckle.
But defensiveness, indignity, anger, rage, annoyance, the desire to punish or to dominate,,,
it simply would not be the reaction.
When a puppy tries to dominate a grown dog, the dog just sits there, letting the puppy jump all over him body, climb his back, nip on his ears, grab his feet and pull his tail. The dog does nothing to the puppy, indeed, he barely moves. Perhaps he'll play with the puppy with a quick jab of his nose, but that's all.
Because there is no threat.
The dog knows that the puppy is inferior, and he is superior. He is there to care for the puppy, protect the puppy, and allow the puppy to learn about the world, and about the puppy's own self, testing limits, testing strength, finding out anything and everything.
That's how superiors treat inferiors, because they are not threatened, they know what the puppy is going to do or not do, because the puppy is inferior.
When the puppy becomes an adult, an equal, then there is more tension, and also more direct companionship. Because now they are equals. Now, if the dog growls or nips, the other dog may react and feel threatened, because they are equals. And when one dog leads, the other follows along, and they switch leading and following all day long. One of them may lead more, but it's not a competition or a hierarchy, it's just their individual personalities; one thinks of things to do and the other is happy to find out what! And then when the other thinks of something, the first dog is equally happy to find out what!
No silliness, no supremacy, no control, no punishment, manipulation, entitlement or pain.
Because dogs have a natural understanding of what superiority really is, and what it entails, and when it's not present.